The Canadian governments, individuals and businesses have adopted the internet as a priceless tool however despite the developments in cyberspace, the security has been threatened by cyber-crime.

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This has forced the Government of Canada to protect individuals from the threats presented. From 2010, an estimated $254 million has been used by Public Safety Canada to defend the computer networks of the government. More has been done to create awareness to the public. The main challenge is that Canada has not fostered an agency that is central that can be used in tracking the cyber-crimes. An example of cyber-crime in Canada in February 2000 whereby a series of attacks were made against known websites such as CNN, Yahoo, Dell, Amazon.com and eBay.

Crime that is related to a computer alongside the use of a network is termed as cyber-crime or computer crime. This is because the computer is used to commit the crime. According to Jaishankar and Debarati Halder, cyber-crime entails offences that are made by people or a group of people with the intention of harming others by utilising a network of telecommunication mainly the internet. Cyber-crimes have major consequences to the security or even finances of a country or an individual. Another consequence occurs when private information is disclosed. There are various categories of cyber-crime which may be considered either illegal or unethical. However the main types are of high-profile. This encompasses crimes such as copyright infringement, hacking, child grooming and pornography. Internationally, cyber-crimes is carried out by state officials and they may engage in financial theft, espionage and crimes across the border.

Under the category of fraud and financial crimes, we consider an illegal cyber-crime that entails theft and fraud. The computer has been used to carry out fraud and identity theft. The use of malware has been common. There is also hacking and phishing involved under this type of cyber-crime. A hacker can be defined as someone who has access to either a computer or a computer network in a way that is not lawful. Mostly they are behind leaking the security of a certain network. Back then, most hackers were considered to be ethical as long as they followed the law. This meant there was no illegal access to a network system. Their aim was to fix flaws present in the security system by first involving the vendor of the software. With time, came the crackers who break into network system illegally. They mainly create their own tools pertaining to the software. Since they break the laws, it is difficult to track them. Hacking has serious consequences especially if the hackers are trained and have skills that are advanced. Knowledge in programming enables them to come up with computer viruses or worms.

Fraud happens when data is altered without authority. You may find that employees in a company enter the wrong data or use instructions that are not authorized. Also, there are cases of hiding transactions that have not been authorized. Another form of fraud entails deleting or changing data that has been stored common in banks.

Under personal crimes, the main form of cybercrime involved is harassment or trolling which we can consider to be unethical. Cyber harassment involves directing obscene content to people for instance that targets their gender, nationality, race, sexual orientation or religion. The main form of harassment takes place in chat rooms. Also, it may entail sending people e-mails of hate.

Also, under this category, we can define drug trafficking as illegal cybercrime. Here, we hear of cases where dark net markets exist and there are online drug stores where people buy or sell drugs. Those involved in the trafficking normally use messaging tools that are encrypted during communication with the mules.

Cyber-crimes can violate intellectual property rights and this may be considered illegal. The main type is copyright which entails using the works of people without their permission. This is commonly termed as copyright infringement since the work is sheltered by the copyright law. By copyright, we mean the rights that are legal granted to owners of work in a country as long as it is original.

In Canada, not many cases of cyber-crimes are reported. For instance in 2009, the General Social Survey (GSS) made the effort of collecting data regarding the number of persons who have reported cases of victimization through the internet. With the information collected, it was possible to establish that many received hate e-mails.

In Canada, the government has undertaken domestic strategies for instance the Cyber Security Strategy which was launched by the Federal Government with the aim of curbing cyber threats. Another effect has been made by the Canada’s anti-spam legislation (CASL) in response to the anti-spam laws. Internationally, Canada has participated in the Convention on Cyber-crime with the aim of fighting cyber-crime through cooperating with other countries.

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